Promising existing initiatives that can lead to efficiency and effectiveness in the promotion and protection of European regional or minority languages The minority languages traditionally used in Europe, including some of the 79 regional or minority languages covered by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, are in danger of disappearing. Their preservation requires the will and determination of many public and private stakeholders: the speakers themselves, but above all the authorities in charge of language policies, as well as the bodies and services in daily contact with the public, such as public transport, medical services, schools, sports and cultural venues, banks and shops.There are many initiatives in Europe in favour of lesser-spoken languages. They are undertaken at local or national level, but their examples are not sufficiently known beyond national borders. The aim of this publication is to make readers aware of what others are doing and what can work in their own language environment.This publication contains examples of practices that could encourage different stakeholders to exchange and launch similar initiatives in other contexts. Europe’s linguistic heritage is presented as a living phenomenon, evolving with the times in the face of the digitisation of social links or the Covid-19 pandemic.