Coherent Identifier About this item: 20.500.12592/vf81xc

Spatial Heterogeneity of COVID-19 Impacts on Urban Household Incomes : Between- and Within-City Evidence from Two African Countries (English)

30 August 2021


This paper examines spatial heterogeneity in the impacts of the early days of the COVID-19 pandemic on urban household incomes in Ethiopia and Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. Combining new panel household surveys with spatial data, the fixed-effects regression analysis for Ethiopia finds that households in large and densely populated towns were more likely to lose their labor incomes in the early phase of the pandemic, and their recovery was slower than other households. Disadvantaged groups, such as female, low-skilled, self-employed, and poor, particularly suffered in those towns. In Kinshasa, labor income-mobility elasticities are higher among workers-particularly female and/or low-skilled workers-who live in areas that are located farther from the city core area or highly dense and precarious neighborhoods. The between- and within-city evidence from two Sub-Saharan African countries points to the spatial heterogeneity of COVID-19 impacts, implying the critical role of mobility and accessibility in urban agglomerations.




household income freedom of movement household size population size regression analysis state of emergency urban economics spatial mismatch labor income standard error poor household high probability low-skilled worker parameter of interest robustness check consumption level income shock high population density income loss ownership share type household head female-headed household work remotely land use management labor outcomes effect on employment central business district poverty and equity urban household low population density household characteristic coefficient estimate estimation result terms of consumption income reduction building density social security payment household fixed effect large town consumption quintile city core area urban labor market accessibility to job transport subsidy urban worker impacts on employment mobility index residential location private sector wage time per day travel to work urban agglomeration economy lack of written contract movement data

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Doc Name
Spatial Heterogeneity of COVID-19 Impacts on Urban Household Incomes : Between- and Within-City Evidence from Two African Countries
Originating Unit
EFI-EAP-POV-Poverty and Equity (EEAPV)
Series Name
Policy Research working paper; no. WPS 9762; COVID-19 (Coronavirus);
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Unit Owning
Off of Sr VP Dev Econ/Chief Econ (DECVP)
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