GLOBAL HYDROGEN TRADE TO MEET THE 1.5°C CLIMATE GOAL - PART II
22 April 2022
The first is innovation to reduce the energy consumption for the liquefaction of hydrogen and the conversion to ammonia and LOHC, and then reconversion to hydrogen. [...] For each of these pathways, the latest status of the technology, projects and gaps to be closed are reviewed for the three parts of the value chain: transformation from gaseous hydrogen to a form suitable for transport, shipping, and transformation from the transported form of hydrogen back to pure hydrogen. [...] The main limitation is the energy consumption of the reconversion (called dehydrogenation), which can consume the equivalent of 25-35% of the energy contained in the hydrogen. [...] • Liquid hydrogen has the limitations of the energy consumption of liquefaction (at least 25% of the energy in the hydrogen), the need for liquefaction plants to be significantly scaled up from the current levels, the lack of commercial large-scale ships, the expense of making equipment suitable for cryogenic conditions (-253°C) and some technology challenges in the liquefaction step that need to. [...] Under regular operating conditions, the conversion in the ammonia reactor is not complete and part of the hydrogen in the outlet needs to be separated from the ammonia product (by condensation) and recycled to the inlet to increase the overall conversion.