6 June 2022
These include the selectivity of the first generation of immigrants, especially in terms of human capital, the ‘modes of inclusion’ of the host society, e.g., legal policies and social acceptance of immigrants, or family composition. [...] ELEMENTS OF THE ANALYTICAL TOOLBOX Because integration is a cross-cutting issue that touches on many subfields of sociology and other neighboring disciplines, the stringency of research is highly dependent on the theoretical and methodological state of affairs in other fields. [...] 4.1 Selectivity A key to understanding integration processes is the selectivity of immigration, i.e., the fact that the resource endowment of immigrants often differs from the typical resource endow- ment of the mainstream population in a receiving country. [...] This devaluation of human capital in the course of migration is a major cause of ethnic disadvantage in the labor market integration of immigrants, especially at the beginning (Chiswick 1978; Friedberg 2000). [...] 5.2 Beyond the Individual Level One of the central objections to the mainstream of empirical integration research is that in the vast majority of all analyses integration is treated as a property of individuals, whereas it should rather be a property of social systems (Schinkel 2018, p.