26 August 2022
After reexamining the somewhat dismissive attitude it had shown toward developing countries in the 1980s, China worked to strengthen its relations with countries in Asia and Africa in the 1990s, and then with Latin America and the island nations of the Pacific from around the turn of the new millennium. [...] These include sanctions on exports of rare earth metals to Japan following the fishing boat collision in waters near the Senkaku Islands, limits placed on imports of Norwegian salmon following the controversy over the award of the Nobel Peace Prize to Lu Xiaobo, the “banana wars” it declared on the Philippines over the disputed sovereignty of the Scarborough Shoal, the banning of Chinese tour grou. [...] But in fact, China’s view is that the rules of the CPTPP, the new Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA), and the Japan-EU Economic Partnership Agreement are likely to become the global standards of the future. [...] Adapting the rules of the CPTPP, TiSA, and the Japan-EU Economic Partnership Agreement would also have to involve reforms relating to the marketization of the Chinese economy and the democratization of its politics. [...] At the Eighteenth National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party in 2012, it was agreed to defend the authority of the central party leadership and strengthen the unified leadership of the Communist Party of China over foreign policy, and structural reforms were undertaken on foreign policy.