From access to learning: education policies in decentralized Indonesia
30 August 2022
From access to learning: education policies in decentralized Indonesia From access to learning: education policies in decentralized Indonesia Menno Pradhan 1 1University of Amsterdam, VU Amsterdam Stellenbosch University, August 31 2, 2022 1 / 39 Outline Indonesia education context Three studies Social Accountability and Teacher incentives Cheating in national exams School integration Joint work w. [...] absence No salary consequence for other teachers 8 / 39 SAM+ Score Score: Remote area allowance cut proportional to overall teacher scorecard 9 / 39 Timeline 10 / 39 Results Year 1 and 2 11 / 39 Results Year 1 Teachers: Top-down supervision: Insignificant hours SAM+CAM: More effects supervision visits Parents: SAM+CAM: teachers School principal does More meetings with with remote area more teacher. [...] Did learning outcomes improve? Without additional resources, the decline in the effect over time is likely to have come from additional effort from students and teachers We rule out several other explanations Students do not move from CBT schools to PBT schools Not due to familiarity with computer as the trend is similar for schools with and without computer labs before the intervention Not explai. [...] We still find that scores recover when we correct our estimates for the integrity index of these schools Not due to new cheating methods because there are few reported cases of cheating on the computer-based exams 25 / 39 Conclusions Technology could potentially contribute to the transition from a cheating culture to a learning culture Cheating was locally concentrated Points to existence of ”chea. [...] Conclusion School value-added is not constant with student composition Behavioral changes at teacher and student level based on student composition point to equilibrium effects When change in student composition is large Schools might need time to adjust to new student composition Diversifying the student body can have negative effects on students other than the primary target beneficiaries High-s.