cover image: Conflict Pollution Hotspots in Iraq: Land Remediation for Livelihoods Restoration

20.500.12592/z072gc

Conflict Pollution Hotspots in Iraq: Land Remediation for Livelihoods Restoration

16 Nov 2023

Successive conflicts in Iraq were characterized by tactics to damage its oil and industrial assets that not only led to huge economic loss, but pollution of environmental resources (air, land, and water) on an unprecedented scale. The Damage and Needs Assessment (DNA) carried out by the World Bank Group (WBG) in 2017, estimated damages to the environmental resources at IQD85 billion (US73 dollars million) and sectoral losses because of the conflict at IQD3.5 trillion (US3 dollars billion). Further, this assessment estimated that up to 47 percent of natural forests in the country may have been destroyed and large areas of land have been contaminated by land mines and hazardous chemicals. Unless these contaminated sites (also referred as ‘environmental hotspots’ in this document) are identified and remediated and/ or managed appropriately as part of the broader reconstruction program of Iraq, it is likely that the negative impacts (both economic and environmental) will be felt for generations to come. In addition, creating better environmental conditions and investments in human and physical capital is crucial for the economic diversification, job creation and healthy citizens for a stable and sustainable development of post-conflict Iraq. The main objective of this report is to present a broad framework and suggested prioritization for the remediation and/or management of environmental hotspots in Iraq. The recommendations have been informed by a detailed inventory and assessment of hotspots carried out by the Ministry of Environment (MoE), Government of Iraq (GoI) with capacity building support provided through the Advisory Services and Analytical (ASA) work of the World Bank. The work involved analysis of the scale and significance of contamination in the conflict affected governorates of Al Anbar, Babil, Baghdad, Diyala, Kirkuk, Nineveh and Salah Al-Din and identifying essential elements of a program for the remediation, management of environmental hotpots in the country.
gis phytoremediation excavation contaminated land land remediation environment :: pollution management & control environment :: environmental management soil washing hotspots mapping soil vapor extraction landfarming natural source zone depletion electrokinetic separation pollution hotspots livelihood impacts

Authors

World Bank

Citation
“ World Bank . 2023 . Conflict Pollution Hotspots in Iraq: Land Remediation for Livelihoods Restoration . © Washington, DC: World Bank . http://hdl.handle.net/10986/40621 License: CC BY-NC 3.0 IGO . ”
Collection(s)
Other Environmental Study
DOI
http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/40621
Identifier externaldocumentum
34187597
Identifier internaldocumentum
34187597
Published in
United States of America
Region country
Iraq
Report
185542
Rights
CC BY-NC 3.0 IGO
Rights Holder
World Bank
Rights URI
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/igo
UNIT
MNA ENR PM (SMNEN)
URI
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/40621
date disclosure
2023-11-16
region administrative
Middle East and North Africa
theme
Soil Pollution,Mitigation,Environmental Health and Pollution Management,Data Development and Capacity Building,Social Development and Protection,Conflict Prevention,Environment and Natural Resource Management,Fragility, Conflict and Violence,Public Sector Management,Environmental policies and institutions,Climate change,Water Pollution,Data production, accessibility and use

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