Act of State

The act-of-state doctrine or foreign act of state doctrine is a principle in English and United States law which states that every sovereign state is bound to respect the independence of every other sovereign state, and the courts will not sit in judgment of another government's acts or act of any sovereign national done within its own territory.The doctrine is not required by international law (neither customary international law nor treaty law), but it is a principle recognized and adhered to by United States federal and state courts. In the United States, the rationales for the doctrine include respect for …

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Cato Institute · 19 May 2022

deterrence failed. World War I provides the most dramatic modern example. Serbia committed an act of state terrorism against the Austro‐​Hungarian Empire. When the latter threatened Belgrade, Imperial


Eurojust · 3 January 2022 English

As can be seen from the operative part of the judgment, the Federal Public Prosecutor’s appeal is partially successful in seeking to have the defendant also found guilty of the …

the ‘Nuremberg Principles’, found that the ‘Act of State’ doctrine did not prevent criminal responsibility immunity of foreign officials (cf., regarding the ‘act of state doctrine’, Federal Constitutional Court, decision


AALCO · 12 October 2021 English

The Delegate of the Islamic Republic of Iran firstly appreciated the work of AALCO and the Rapporteur of the OEWG on Cyberspace on the topic, and especially for preparation of …

a group of persons shall be considered as an act of State under international law if the person or group


World Bank Group · 6 October 2021 English

The asset management and operating companies - Assam Shipping Company and Assam Port Company that are being established also need to be functional at earliest to ensure the safe and …

End Target Value RA Established under new Act of State Legislative Assembly The AIWTRA (Amendment) (Current) Target 4 Value RA Established under new Act of State Legislative Assembly The AIWTRA (Amendment)


OSCE · 22 September 2021 English

This gross trampling on the right of access to information is taking place while the patrons of the Ukrainian Government in the United States of America and the European Union …

profanation of one’s own past constitutes a cynical act of State vandalism. In short, ever since the anti-constitutional


TEEB · 15 July 2021 English

In particular in the context of the scope of work of the TEEB AgriFood project which is organic farming and agroforestry, the list identifies some key players who are involved …

University of Horticulture & Forestry (UUHF) by an Act of State Legislative Assembly with Head Quarter at Bharsar


EASO · 10 June 2021 English

whereas there is growing repression against representatives of the Polish minority in Belarus, including the arrest and sentencing of the Chairwoman of the Union of Poles in Belarus, Andżelika Borys, …

whereas the forced landing of the plane as an act of state-sponsored terrorism and the arrest of a so-called violation of international law which constitutes an act of state terrorism; 2. Calls for the immediate and unconditional


OSCE · 20 May 2021 English

On the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the Fourth World Conference on Women and the adoption of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (1995), the UN Economic and …

are violated by an act, action, or failure to act of state bodies, state administration bodies, bodies


Cato Institute · 27 April 2021 English

Woodrow Wilson usually ranks high in the pantheon of American presidents. Yet he was a virulent racist and sharply attacked civil liberties, jailing famed socialist leader Eugene Debs for opposing …

Dragutin Dimitrijević, making the crime an act of state terrorism. Serbian politics was violent, even


CSD · 14 February 2021 English

We would also like to commend the experts in Serbia who agreed to participate in the assessment, despite the adverse political environment in the country during the period of the …

state aid is aid granted on the basis of an act of state aid provider to a predetermined beneficiary


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