Nineteenth Century

The 19th (nineteenth) century began on January 1, 1801, and ended on December 31, 1900. The term is often used to refer to the 1800s, the century between January 1, 1800 and December 31, 1899. The 19th century was the ninth century of the 2nd millennium. The 19th century saw large amounts of social change; slavery was abolished, and the First and Second Industrial Revolutions (which also overlap with the 18th and 20th centuries, respectively) led to massive urbanization and much higher levels of productivity, profit and prosperity. The Islamic gunpowder empires were formally dissolved and European imperialism brought much …

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Publications

RAND Corporation · 4 June 2024 English

Testimony presented before the U.S. House Committee on Homeland Security, Subcommittee on Transportation and Maritime Security on June 4, 2024.

Eradicate North African Piracy in the Early Nineteenth Century,” Journal for Maritime Research, Vol. 18


PCNS: Policy Center for the New South · 4 June 2024 English

The consequence of these changes were quick to materialize: in the midterm elections of 1997, the PRI lost control of the Chamber of Deputies, and Cárdenas became the first elected …

(and before him, José Martí, already in the nineteenth century). Before that, there were the famous Peruvian


RSF: Russell Sage Foundation · 1 June 2024 English

This introduction seeks to perform two tasks: it provides a roadmap for readers yet to be initiated into the reparations dialogue and provides fresh insights for those already well versed …

the United States prior to the end of the nineteenth century Proposed modalities Formal apology, museum


RSF: Russell Sage Foundation · 1 June 2024 English

This introduction seeks to perform two tasks: it provides a roadmap for readers yet to be initiated into the reparations dialogue and provides fresh insights for those already well versed …

the United States prior to the end of the nineteenth century Proposed modalities Formal apology, museum


RSF: Russell Sage Foundation · 1 June 2024 English

Paying reparations to Black Americans has long been contentiously debated. This article addresses an unexamined pillar of this debate: the United States has a long-standing social norm that if an …

rights were stolen and mismanaged in the nineteenth century. In the 1880s, many American Indian nations


RSF: Russell Sage Foundation · 1 June 2024 English

This article considers a subset of lawsuits in which emancipated people sued to have their enslavers’ bequests to them honored. It contends that we should see these suits as contests …

free la- bor paradigm of the mid- to late nineteenth century (espoused by abolitionists, Free Soil- ers White Women, Black Men: Il- licit Sex in the Nineteenth- Century South. New Haven, Conn: Yale University


RSF: Russell Sage Foundation · 1 June 2024 English

Reparations policies that seek to make amends for a harm incurred face exigent challenges. In this article we focus on what makes reparations successful and what policy components are necessary, …

“Peasant Communes and Factor Markets in Late Nineteenth- Century Rus- sia.” Explorations in Economic History


NBER: National Bureau of Economic Research · 31 May 2024 English

The traditional historical narrative claims that White women were rarely involved in market transactions for enslaved people in the antebellum United States. Using transaction records, notary statements, and runaway advertisements, …

research on the origins of names in the nineteenth century, and historical records of names and name


MP-IDSA: Manohar Parrikar Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses · 30 May 2024 English

These victories led to the breakup of the Kyivan states, which remained under the dominion of the Golden Horde for a few centuries.10 It was during this period that the …

words of historian Serhii Plokhi, ‘produced a nineteenth-century war fought with twentieth-century tactics


Fraser Institute · 28 May 2024 English

Summary This essay evaluates past carbon emission reduction and the feasibility of eliminating fossil fuels to achieve net-zero carbon by 2050. Despite international agreements, government spending and regulations, and technological …

energy sources just before the end of the nineteenth century, and hence for the past 125 years we have 1oC of global warming compared to the late nineteenth-century mean. All continents have Figure 3: CO2 undergo its first energy transition during the nineteenth century, it had to replace about 1.5 billion tons


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