Terms of Trade

The terms of trade (TOT) is the relative price of exports in terms of imports and is defined as the ratio of export prices to import prices. It can be interpreted as the amount of import goods an economy can purchase per unit of export goods. An improvement of a nation's terms of trade benefits that country in the sense that it can buy more imports for any given level of exports. The terms of trade may be influenced by the exchange rate because a rise in the value of a country's currency lowers the domestic prices of its imports …



CIGS: Canon Institute for Global Studies · 21 November 2023 Japanese

To endogenize the intermediary’s initial endowment, and also to make the medium of ex- change explicit, in Section 3, we insert the baseline model to a standard monetary framework of …

attract targeted suppliers through their designed terms of trade. In 2017, Richards Bay Minerals, South Africa’s

CEC: Chaire Economie du Climat · 17 November 2023 English

These guidelines enable all market participants to clearly understand the characteristics of a green loan, based on the following four core components: • Use of proceeds (UoP) The fundamental determinant …

implications tend to be ambiguous or negative. Terms-of-trade or rent-shifting effects are zero-sum on a

DIR: Daiwa Institute of Research Group · 16 November 2023

Trade balance worsens due to yen depreciation and rising oil prices

seasonally adjusted basis due to worsening terms of trade.  Export volume in October declined for the

World Bank Group · 16 November 2023 English

Economic integration of the African continent rests on two pillars: the ratification of an ambitious trade agreement and massive investment in transportation infrastructure. Leveraging a newly created city-level database on …

170–192. Anderson, J. E. & Yotov, Y. V. (2016), ‘Terms of trade and global efficiency effects of free trade

TJM: Trade Justice Movement · 16 November 2023 English

together coalitions to create fairer, more equal and of outsourced and privatised public services being 2 Timeline Brexit and The Trade Justice Solidarity with our new Movement is born the …

norm during the colonial era. These unfair terms of trade cemented North-South inequalities and severely little progress. losses through deteriorating terms of trade, either through commodity agreements or compensatory Programmes The NIEO demands for more equitable terms of trade were never realised. Global economic events neocolonial dynamics have persisted, with the terms of trade faced by the Global South deteriorating throughout atin-american-economic-history/article/abs/terms-of-trade-for-commodities-since-the-mid19th-century/

IMF: International Monetary Fund · 16 November 2023 English

Economic growth has been robust, supported by strong domestic investment and consumption. Monetary policy is focused on containing inflationary pressures, while fiscal policy has kept public debt in check. The …

0.8 -0.9 -0.9 -2.1 -2.0 -1.6 -1.2 -1.3 -1.3 Terms of trade (goods, improvement +) 2.3 0.8 -1.7 -2.1 8

IMF: International Monetary Fund · 16 November 2023 English

Korea faced challenges from inflation, growth slowdown, and financial stress in the wake of the pandemic. Growth started to slow in mid-2022 as global demand for electronics waned and domestic …

Import volume 12.6 4.3 0.0 3.0 Terms of trade -2.8 -7.4 -2.3 5.0 Consolidated central trade balance turned to recover… …with the terms of trade strengthening on declined oil prices.

World Bank Group · 16 November 2023 English

The Moroccan economy is recovering. Following a sharp deceleration in 2022 caused by various overlapping commodityand climatic shocks, economic growth increased to 2.9 percent in the first semester of 2023, …

also to a reduction in imports as the 2022 terms of trade shock dissipated during the first semester distur- bances. The recent earthquake and the terms-of- trade deterioration that followed Russia’s war on and 3.5 per- cent of GDP respectively. This terms-of-trade shock dissipated in the first semester of expected to narrow in 2023 due to improved terms-of- trade, but rising energy prices and the recov- ery widen it in 2024. Together with the fading terms-of-trade shock that was triggered by the Russian invasion

EPRS: European Parliamentary Research Service · 15 November 2023 English

invasion of Ukraine has been a significant “terms of trade” effect for the euro area economy. This has effect is a lot smaller than the impact of the “terms of trade” shock. Also, focusing on the mechanical determinants on the impact of these factors as well as terms of trade effects on inflation in the euro area. Section language of economists, Europe has had a large “terms of trade” shock because of an increase in the price to consumer prices, including the impact of terms of trade effects as well as some other items. He then

World Bank Group · 14 November 2023 English

The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund use the Low-Income Country Debt Sustainability Framework to assess the sustainability of sovereign debt in about 75 low- and middle-income developing countries. …

growth is not clearly justified. Why not include terms of trade shocks? Also puzzling is the replacement of there are exogenous economic shocks, such as a terms-of-trade (ToT) shock or a jump in world interest rates

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