Volcanic Eruptions

Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists. These are often named after famous volcanoes where that type of behavior has been observed. Some volcanoes may exhibit only one characteristic type of eruption during a period of activity, while others may display an entire sequence of types all in one eruptive series. There are three different types of eruptions. The most well-observed are magmatic eruptions, which involve the decompression of gas within magma that propels it forward. Phreatomagmatic …

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Climate Variability in Central Europe during the Last 2500 Years Reconstructed from …

PIK · 27 April 2021 English

The Late Holocene was characterized by several centennial-scale climate oscillations including the Roman Warm Period, the Dark Ages Cold Period, the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age. The …

cold period, which occurred after several volcanic eruptions and was sustained by a solar minimum as well well as a solar activity minimum and several volcanic eruptions have been assumed as possible triggers for


Frontline : Preparing Healthcare Systems for Shocks from Disasters to Pandemics

World Bank Group · 12 April 2021 English

Healthcare systems are at the frontline of delivering critical care during emergencies. Yet, already before the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries were struggling to meet even routine demands for health care. …

the Philippines frequently experiences volcanic eruptions, floods, earthquakes, and typhoons. Dayrit


Our future in the Anthropocene biosphere

PIK · 1 April 2021 English

The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed an interconnected and tightly coupled globalized world in rapid change. This article sets the scientific stage for understanding and responding to such change for global …

of the tectonic plates, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. Water serves as the bloodstream of the


Creating Pathways for Disaster Risk Financing Post-COVID-19

ORF · 25 March 2021 English

As South Asia faces an increasingly complex and expanding disaster risk landscape, the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated the systemic gaps in risk management. There is a need for a paradigm shift …

tornadoes) or geophysical nature (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions) that displace large numbers of people, epidemic


Responding to the COVID-19 Pandemic: Leaving No Country Behind

UNDP · 23 March 2021 English

This report is published at a time when Asia and the Pacific continue to be strongly affected by the Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. While the region was already off-track to meeting …

earthquakes, cyclones, floods, drought, and volcanic eruptions. The Asia-Pacific Disaster Report 2019 warned


EU climate action policy: Responding to the global emergency

EPRS · 18 March 2021 English

The European Green Deal aims to make the European Union climate-neutral by 2050, a target supported by all EU institutions. With this objective, the EU takes a leading role in …

the result of both natural causes (such as volcanic eruptions and changes in solar activity) and human


Testimony: Climate ‘risk’ and the distortion of U.S. financial markets

AEI · 18 March 2021 English

“21st Century Economy: Protecting the Financial System from Risks Associated with Climate Change” Full Committee Hearing, March 18, 2021, United States Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Thank …

business decisions. What about massive volcanic eruptions? Asteroid impacts? Powerful earthquakes?


The Convergence of Sovereign Environmental, Social and Governance Ratings

World Bank Group · 1 March 2021 English

This paper studies sovereign environmental, social, and governance (ESG) ratings from the qualitative and quantitative angles. First, it introduces the landscape for sovereign ESG ratings. Second, it provides a comparison …

sea-level rise) and natural disaster risks (volcanic eruptions and earthquakes).


Solar Geoengineering, Learning, and Experimentation

NBER · 4 February 2021 English

Solar geoengineering (SGE) can combat climate change by directly reducing temperatures. Both SGE and the climate itself are surrounded by great uncertainties. Implementing SGE affects learning about these uncertainties. We …

techniques mimic the climate impact of major volcanic eruptions by injecting reflective particles into the and uncertainty using data from historical volcanic eruptions. We then run 10,000 simulations of the solved effectiveness in reducing temperatures is similar to volcanic eruptions. However, some research indicates careful system. Our calibrated parameters based on volcanic eruptions, uncertain effectiveness, and loss of information (CMIP5) Simulations of Climate Following Volcanic Eruptions. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres


Second Greater Mekong Subregion Tourism Infrastructure for Inclusive Growth Project: Coastal Road …

ADB · 20 January 2021 English

Initial Environmental Examinations (IEE) describe the environmental condition of a project, including potential impact, formulation of mitigation measures, and preparation of institutional requirements for environmental monitoring. This document dated January …

cyclone winds, storm surges, tsunami or volcanic eruptions and climate changes □ ■ It shall add more


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