cover image: Comparing Smuggling Dynamics: - MMC Research Report, March 2024


Comparing Smuggling Dynamics: - MMC Research Report, March 2024

25 Mar 2024

The findings suggest that the differences in the journey and routes taken, and the presence of a diaspora, are key factors influencing the engagement with and reliance on smugglers. [...] This report underscores the integral role of smugglers in facilitating migration from Myanmar to Malaysia and Thailand, influenced by a complex interplay of factors that result in considerable variation in the dynamics of smuggling among different population groups and on different routes. [...] In the absence of affordable and accessible regular pathways, Rohingya and others from Myanmar who are seeking to enter Malaysia and Thailand have little choice but to embark on risky, irregular journeys, many facilitated by the services of smugglers.4 Shifts in the scale and nature of mixed migration from Myanmar is reflected in smuggler dynamics. [...] This report explores the use of smugglers among refugees and migrants from Myanmar, and the dynamics of smuggling between different groups from Myanmar (Rohingya and other respondents) and the routes they take (to Malaysia and to Thailand). [...] Malaysia hosts 184,220 refugees and asylum seekers, of whom 58% are Rohingya and 29% are refugees from other ethnic groups in Myanmar.6 There are well-established community networks among Rohingya and other migrant and refugee groups from Myanmar in Malaysia, which may explain the reported influence of diaspora on the use of smugglers among both groups.
Published in