5 May 2020
That ignores the facts and the long history of the core areas which were so linked to the world — the Indus Valley, Gujarat, the Malabar, and Coromandel coasts, and Orissa-Bengal — thanks to whom India was the world’s greatest source of manufactures for most of history, and a major source of military manpower and technology. [...] Both India and China are paying the costs of environmental degradation, which the World Bank estimates at about 9% of GDP equivalent in China and 5.7% in India, erasing the gains of economic growth and hitting the poor disproportionately.11 Today, the resulting gap between India and China is the widest in social indicators. [...] The global number of terrorist attacks, and the number of casualties almost tripled between 2010 and early 2016.21 By 2015, the number of wars and number of people killed was back to Cold War levels, and the number of terrorist attacks and number of refugees had surpassed the worst of the Cold War. [...] like the United States, Europe and Russia are losing self-confidence), and the return of classical geopolitics in terms of territorial and maritime disputes, political instability, and contention in the maritime domain in the South China Sea and the East China Sea. [...] While the Indo-Pacific is India’s natural outlet, now that it is cut off from continental Asia by Partition and China’s occupation of Tibet, and freedom of navigation and security in the Indo-Pacific is critical to India’s wellbeing and future prosperity, the Indo-Pacific is not the answer to India’s continental security issues, of which there are many, and which are not shared by any of the other.