MONITORING AND EVALUATION In 2011, the bulk of the IS’ work in the Accountability programme focused on developing a participatory process monitoring tool with Members and allies in India. [...] Members from Europe identified areas to address, including the lack of clarity on the concept of exploitation, the isolation of organisations in the region providing assistance, the absence of indicators of exploitation, the difficulties in identifying who’s been trafficked for this purpose, and the lack of understanding amongst the security forces and legal systems. [...] One of the important factors in this program’s success has been Member Organisations’ involvement in identifying the need for this work, assisting in the conceptualisation of the research, and providing the ground-level knowledge our research was based on. [...] 2012 research fulfilled a number of objectives: (1) it allowed the IS to meet a need specifically identified by European Member Organisations, (2) it allowed the IS to formulate an analysis of exploitation outside the sex sector that is grounded in the experiences and knowledge of our Members, and (3) it strengthened the relationship between the IS and European Member Organisations. [...] The GAATW-IS is in a unique position to contribute to international smuggling discourses, given the IS’s presence at and specific knowledge of UNTOC, and knowledge of the blurred lines between human trafficking and human smuggling.