24 June 2022
In particular, the analysis considers the definition of types of innovation, and how different African countries have performed with respect to these dimensions; the role of the distribution of patents between residents and non-residents in the region, both in general and by types of innovation; and the factors promoting successful innovation in some countries compared to others in the region. [...] Source: Authors’ calculations, based on the World Bank Open Database and the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) To illustrate the importance of innovation, it is useful to compare the distribution of IP applications by Asia and Africa at the beginning and the end of the period under review. [...] Comparing between the two regions shows that the share of resident patent applications make up more than three- quarters of their patent applications at the beginning and the end of the period in Asia, whereas in Africa it is the opposite—the share of non-resident patent applications is more than three-quarters of total patent activity, both at the beginning and the end of the period, although tha. [...] 3.1 Potential Determinants Research on the capacity to innovate and innovation outcomes has highlighted the potential impact of several key determinants: R&D expenditure; the quality of human capital; access to advanced infrastructure; access to finance; and the protection of property rights and the quality of governance. [...] Investment has a positive and significant impact for the larger sample when estimated using the pooled OLS and the random- effects techniques, whereas the coefficient on the literacy rate is positive apart from the case of the larger sample when estimated using the pooled OLS technique, where it is negative but insignificant.