Climate Change 2023 Synthesis Report
10 August 2023
It considers long-term characteristics, impacts, risks and costs summarises the state of knowledge of climate change, its widespread in adaptation and mitigation pathways in the context of sustainable impacts and risks, and climate change mitigation and adaptation, based development. [...] This has led to widespread adverse impacts on food and water security, human health and on economies and society and related losses and damages63 to nature and people (high confidence). [...] The choice of metric depends on the purpose of the analysis and all GHG emission metrics have limitations and uncertainties, given that they simplify the complexity of the physical climate system and its response to past and future GHG emissions. [...] Human influence is very likely the main the magnitude of heat extremes (high confidence) and mass mortality driver of the global retreat of glaciers since the 1990s and the decrease events on land and in the ocean (very high confidence). [...] In the Arctic and in some high mountain health and food security, destruction of homes and infrastructure, and loss regions, negative impacts of cryosphere change have been especially felt of property and income, with adverse effects on gender and social equity among Indigenous Peoples (high confidence).