Income inequalities and the middle class
Coherent Identifier 20.500.12592/w00t52

Income inequalities and the middle class

1 June 2024


The report maps trends in income inequality and examines the situation of the middle classes in the EU during 2020, the year most associated with the COVID-19 lockdowns. It charts developments in the size and composition of middle-class households across countries, identifies those that suffered disproportionately in 2020. Taking a longer lens, the report describes the evolution of income inequalities over the last 15 years, comparing the Great Recession (2007–2009) with the COVID-19 pandemic, and outlines the trends both between and within Member States. Finally, it looks at the role of the welfare state in cushioning market income inequalities and how this has evolved over time.

Published in


covid-19 inequality pay and income promoting social cohesion and convergence forthcoming