30 October 2023
With the rise in population of the country, there is a huge housing deficit of nearly 10 million units and growing, resulting in the growth of slums, overexploitation of natural resources and risk to human health and lives. [...] The report attempts to shed light on the prospects of urbanization in Pakistan, in terms of challenges and opportunities, through the resilience lens: mitigation, adaptation measures, loss and damage, and the need for climate finance. [...] Therefore, addressing the impacts of climate change on the agricultural and allied industries is critical to reducing the burden on urban areas and the resources available to them9 These coupled challenges related to transportation arise from the loss of infrastructure, such as roads and bridges, disrupting supply chain, contributing to the existing inflationary pressures and production challenges. [...] The country is home to the Himalayan belt and other mountain ranges (some above 1000 m high) in the north and a coastal belt along the Arabian Sea in the south.11 Administratively, the urban centres of Pakistan, apart from the federal capital of Islamabad, have been divided into three tiers under the provincial governments of four provinces, namely, Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochista. [...] No matter where in the country the building is located, the internal design temperatures specified in the Building Energy Code of Pakistan (BECP) are 21oC in the summer and 26oC in the winter. These restrictions are not less than 25°C in the summer and not more than 22°C in the winter for a building with HVAC system, according to Pakistan’s Building Code (Energy Provisions-2011).