Abstracts

An abstract is a brief summary of a research article, thesis, review, conference proceeding, or any in-depth analysis of a particular subject and is often used to help the reader quickly ascertain the paper's purpose. When used, an abstract always appears at the beginning of a manuscript or typescript, acting as the point-of-entry for any given academic paper or patent application. Abstracting and indexing services for various academic disciplines are aimed at compiling a body of literature for that particular subject. The terms précis or synopsis are used in some publications to refer to the same thing that other publications …

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Publications

Overcoming the Nation's Daunting Housing Supply Shortage

Urban Institute · 30 March 2021 English

In this brief, the authors discuss the causes, scale and implications of the shortfall in housing supply. They argue that while it is a complex issue to address, doing so …

and second and vacation homes. Trend demand abstracts from the near-term temporary impacts on demand


When Did Growth Begin? New Estimates of Productivity Growth in England from …

NBER · 25 March 2021 English

We provide new estimates of the evolution of productivity in England from 1250 to 1870. Real wages over this period were heavily influenced by plague-induced swings in the population. We …

4.2 Incorporating Capital Our baseline model abstracts from variation in physical capital. Since productivity


Strengthening Developing Member Countries’ Capacity in Elderly Care: Projecting the Need for …

ADB · 25 March 2021 English

Consultants' reports describe activities by a consultant or group of consultants related to preparing a technical assistance project. This document dated March 2021 is provided for the ADB project 49277-001.

January 2012 to February 2019. The titles and abstracts were reviewed to identify relevant articles, which


Assessing the Impact of Community-Level Initiatives: A Literature Review

Urban Institute · 24 March 2021 English

Addressing many of the most difficult social problems requires an approach that combines the efforts of multiple organizations, often operating in different sectors, coordinating across an entire community. Numerous programs …

the memo, including full references, article abstracts, and important themes. The articles and chapters


Macroeconomic Research in Low-income Countries : Advances Made in Five Key Areas …

IMF · 24 March 2021 English

Despite strong economic growth since 2000, many low-income countries (LICs) still face numerous macroeconomic challenges, even prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite the deceleration in real GDP growth during the …

on growth and the public debt trajectory, and abstracts from welfare metrics. Specific applications illustrated


Colombia : Selected Issues

IMF · 23 March 2021 English

Selected Issues

is evaluated at the initial value of GDP and abstracts from the mechanical or economic effects of the


Pricing Protest: The Response of Financial Markets to Social Unrest

IMF · 19 March 2021 English

Using a new daily index of social unrest, we provide systematic evidence on the negative impact of social unrest on stock market performance. An average social unrest episode in an …

to the pre-event average ensures that the SUkt abstracts from any factors that are constant during the


Uncertainty and Risk-Taking in Science: Meaning, Measurement and Management

NBER · 12 March 2021 English

An underlying rationale for public support of science is that private companies underinvest in research of a risky nature. Yet, risk in science is a poorly understood concept. This paper …

chemicals and chemical relationships, using abstracts from publications indexed in Medline. The authors


Big Push in Distorted Economies

NBER · 12 March 2021 English

Why don't poor countries adopt more productive technologies? Is there a role for policies that coordinate technology adoption? To answer these questions, we develop a quantitative model that features complementarity …

of Cooper and John (1988), but this literature abstracts from micro-level heterogeneity. 4Yeaple (2005) basic model in the distortion literature that abstracts from technology choices and input-output linkages basic model in the distortion literature that abstracts from intermediate inputs and technology adoption


Climate Royalty Surcharges

NBER · 12 March 2021 English

In 2019, production on federal lands comprised 40% of domestic coal, 22% of domestic oil, and 12% of domestic natural gas production. Currently, the federal fossil fuel leasing program does …

which this maximizes welfare is a simple one that abstracts from other externalities in the energy sector optimal taxation. That framework, however, abstracts from many real-world complications, such as


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