German Democratic Republic

East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik [ˈdɔʏtʃə demoˈkʁaːtɪʃə ʁepuˈbliːk], DDR [ˌdeːdeːˈʔɛʁ]), was a country that existed from 1949 to 1990, the period when the eastern portion of Germany was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War. Commonly described as a communist state in English usage, it described itself as a socialist "workers' and peasants' state". It consisted of territory that was administered and occupied by Soviet forces following the end of World War II—the Soviet occupation zone of the Potsdam Agreement, bounded on the east by the Oder–Neisse line. The Soviet zone …



WIL: World Inequality Lab · 21 November 2023 English

Tax data is available in the form of tabulations for all Western countries, with the exception of Malta, to varying degrees of annual coverage. [...] The sole focus of the …

Herzegovina, former Czechoslovakia, the former German Democratic Republic, Kosovo, Moldova, Montenegro, and North

PILAR: Institute of Social Sciences Ivo Pilar · 16 November 2023 English

Age structure of the emigrant population The age structure of Croatia’s emigrant population is a recurring topic in expert debate Researchers regularly alert the public to the ever-increasing participation of …

of Germany which had belonged to the German Democratic Republic (GDR) The discourse leaders claimed a

Jamestown Foundation · 26 October 2023 English

Russian economic weakness figures particularly in the Sputnik and Ecuador cases; Moscow’s disregard for legal and regulatory procedures in the cases of Sputnik and Nord Stream 2; vigorous pushback by …

orderly, if authoritarian, days of the German Democratic Republic. Officially speaking, the EU was still

HJS: Henry Jackson Society · 25 October 2023 English

The UN and other international organisations and human rights bodies have documented extensive evidence of war crimes, including the forcible deportation of Ukrainian children to Russia for which Maria Alekseyevna …

1955 before its eastern territory (the German Democratic Republic) was liberated and reunited 45 years

PIK: Potsdam-Institut fur Klimafolgenforschung · 19 October 2023 English

Carbon pricing is a core climate policy in many countries. However, the distribution of impacts is highly unequal across income brackets, but also across household types and regions. The complex …

Republic of Germany (FRG) and the former German Democratic Republic (GDR)), energy efficiency differences

CISSM: Center for International and Security Studies at Maryland · 15 October 2023 English

Thoughts and Tips By and About the Army's Noncommissioned Officer Corps

monograph as “West Germany,” and the German Democratic Republic (GDR) is referred to as “East Germany

PIIE: Peterson Institute for International Economics · 2 October 2023 English

The preamble of the Havana Charter for the International Trade Organization (ITO), signed on 24 March 1948, which was intended to be a sister organization to the World Bank and …

bought goods from producers from the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) such as typewriters, cameras

IFRI: Institut Français des Relations Internationales · 29 September 2023 English

Russia’s invasion of Ukraine on February 24, 2022, marked a turning point in German defense policy. After thirty years of military downsizing, the Bundeswehr found itself at an extremely low …

western Länder and those in the former German Democratic Republic (GDR) is striking, with the latter expressing

OSW: Centre for Eastern Studies · 25 September 2023 English

The concept of the narrative that turns the Zeitenwende into a ‘super‑ reform’, a ‘reform of all reforms’, and the driving force of Germany’s development has a number of advantages …

state‑ owned prop‑ erty of the former German Democratic Republic. The Trust Office (Treuhandanstalt) established

OSW: Centre for Eastern Studies · 25 September 2023 English

This gas was mainly bought in summer on the spot market, when the price was very low, even though the cost was irrelevant as the political priority was to fill …

state‑ owned prop‑ erty of the former German Democratic Republic. The Trust Office (Treuhandanstalt) established

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