Heads of State

A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state in its unity and legitimacy. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead (such as the British Monarch) or concurrently the head of government and more (such as the president of the United States, who is also commander-in-chief of the US Armed Forces). In a parliamentary system, such as India and Pakistan, the head of state usually has mostly ceremonial powers, with a separate head of government. However, in some parliamentary …

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Publications

UNDP: United Nations Development Programme · 10 July 2024

In 2015, Heads of State and Government and High representatives affirmed that “On behalf of the peoples we serve, we have adopted a historic decision on a comprehensive, far-reaching and people-centred


AU: African Union · 9 July 2024

accelerate implementation of the macroeconomic convergence criteria adopted by the Assembly of Heads of State and Government in 2022. [...] This should take into account the three priorities of the G20 Brazilian


FPRI: Foreign Policy Research Institute · 9 July 2024

news a lot. It's the 75th anniversary of the alliance. There's going to be this summit of the 32 heads of state and government in Washington D.C. this summer. But because the alliance has been around for so


EPRS: European Parliamentary Research Service · 28 June 2024 English

A European digital product passport (DPP) could enhance textile industry traceability, circularity, and transparency. This study focuses on the possibility to introduce a DPP, framed within the European Union's strategy …

impacts. The pact was then presented to the Heads of State at the G7 Summit in Biarritz in 2019. In 2024


AU: African Union · 28 June 2024 English

Protocol on Amendments to the Protocol on the Statute of the African Court of Justice and Human Rights. [...] In celebration of the 10th Anniversary of the adoption of the …

Malabo Protocol was adopted by the Assembly of Heads of State and Government, held in Malabo, Equatorial


RAND Corporation · 28 June 2024 English

Since the formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1949, RAND has been at the forefront of efforts to rethink the issues, options, and trade-offs that the Alliance …

then–Secretary of Defense Brown and adopted by NATO Heads of State and Government at the Washington Summit in “Vilnius Summit Communiqué: Issued by NATO Heads of State and Government Participating in the Meeting


EPRS: European Parliamentary Research Service · 27 June 2024 English

Resolutions are an essential way for the European Parliament to express its views on political processes, EU policies and developments in the world. Parliament also uses them to scrutinise other …

of the Treaty of Lisbon – consists of the Heads of State or Government of the 27 EU Member States, the European Council meeting on the MFF, when EU Heads of State or Government politically agreed the new financial more than a political agreement between the Heads of State and Government'. Parliament also stressed dissatisfaction with certain activities of EU Heads of State or Government. Using resolutions on the European European Parliament President when speaking to EU Heads of State or Government at European Council meetings


EU: European Union · 27 June 2024 English

Political Forum. The Commission welcomes that heads of state and government will, with all relevant stakeholders


CEIP: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace · 27 June 2024 English

The Vilnius summit achieved some breakthroughs for Ukraine, but both Kyiv and NATO member states are aiming for a calmer atmosphere this year.

Stoltenberg and Zelens� stand among heads of state at the Vilnius NATO summit in 2023. (Photo by Nicolas


World Bank Group · 26 June 2024 English

West Africa's alarming food security situation is closely linked to poor soil health and soil degradation constraining agricultural productivity amid strong food demand growth​. Limited access to and use of …

29-31, 2023) convening ECOWAS/CILSS/WAEMU Heads of State and ministers with broad participation across technical partners • During the roundtable, ECOWAS Heads of State made a joint declaration on their commitment


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