An obligation is a course of action that someone is required to take, whether legal or moral. Obligations are constraints; they limit freedom. People who are under obligations may choose to freely act under obligations. Obligation exists when there is a choice to do what is morally good and what is morally unacceptable. There are also obligations in other normative contexts, such as obligations of etiquette, social obligations, religious and possibly in terms of politics, where obligations are requirements which must be fulfilled. These are generally legal obligations, which can incur a penalty for non-fulfilment, although certain people are obliged …



World Bank Group · 31 December 2024 English

evidence that the environment and social management obligations related to such upcoming Project activities shall

Greens/EFA: The Greens/European Free Alliance · 3 August 2024 English

A study by Martin Sas, KU Leuven, Centre for IT & IP Law, Leuven, Belgium Jan Tobias Mühlberg, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Ecole Polytechnique,Brussels, Belgium

data controllers’ compliance 18 with their obligations under the GDPR, notably vis-à-vis articles 24 diligence obligations (art. 1 DSA)  [116]. Section 3 of chapter III specifies the obligations of providers service is a minor. 3. Compliance with the obligations set out in this Article shall not oblige providers know as the CSAR proposal) aims to impose new obligations to providers of relevant ISS, as well as providers of the proposal, indeed, introduced detection obligations requiring providers of hosting services and

GRC: Global Rights Compliance · 13 June 2024 English

This report by international human rights foundation Global Rights Compliance publishes evidence of Russian and pro-Russian forces using starvation as a method of warfare against Ukrainian civilians during their 85-day …

Ukrainian authorities of failing to fulfil their obligations, and Ukrainian forces of using the time specified

UNEP: United Nations Environment Programme · 11 June 2024 English

-By Invitation Only- The UNEP-convened Climate and Clean Air Coalition and the UNECE secretariat to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (Air Convention) are organising a 3-day Sub-regional Workshop …

real-world examples and discussions on the reporting obligations under the UNFCCC and the Air Convention providing

IRENA: International Renewable Energy Agency · 11 June 2024 English

Renewable energy, energy access

subordinated loans are repaid only after all senior obligations have been satisfied. For the increased risk, preferred equity is repaid after all senior obligations and subordinated loans have been satisfied and of default, they are repaid after all senior obligations are satisfied, and so the increased risk requires Preferred equity is repaid after all senior obligations and subordinated loans have been satisfied, and INSTRUMENT DESCRIPTION Debt Standard loan Legal debt obligations assumed by recipient, including transfers in

EUROPOL: European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Cooperation · 10 June 2024 English

The first report on encryption created by the EU Innovation Hub for Internal Security presents an analysis on the topic of encryption from a legislative, technical and developmental viewpoint. It …

report because the regulation does not include obligations for service providers to make data in the clear framework across the EU, governing a range of legal obligations imposed upon telecommunications providers, including service providers must comply with the same obligations regarding their cooperation with public investigations VULNERABILITY OF BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS Given the legal obligations regarding biometric data presented above, it

Macquarie Bank Limited · 7 June 2024 English

days of the relevant due date; or (b) (other obligations) the Issuer defaults in performance or observance of or compliance with any of its other obligations set out in the PR D.

(Cth) of Australia (the “Banking Act”), and its obligations do not represent deposits or other liabilities otherwise provide assurance in respect of the obligations of Macquarie Group Limited. The following eight Coupons are direct, unsecured and unsubordinated obligations of the Issuer and rank pari passu without any for the purposes of the Banking Act, and its obligations do not represent deposits or other liabilities otherwise provide assurance in respect of the obligations of MGL. 5 Interest 5.1 General PR Debt Instruments

7 June 2024 English

Israel and Hamas have been engaged in a conflict in the Gaza strip since October 7, 2023, when Hamas launched a surprise incursion into Israel killing more than one thousand …

warfighting activities. The current UNFCCC reporting obligations do not set out requirements to cover conflict highlights the inadequacy of the current reporting obligations to the UNFCCC, and failure of the UNFCCC’s structure conflict emissions. Under the current reporting obligations, military emission data is provided on a voluntary emission data which aligned to UNFCCC reporting obligations.21 This work is meant to draw attention to the

Macquarie Bank Limited · 7 June 2024 English

that the following risk factors may affect the Issuer's ability to fulfil its obligations or ability to perform its obligations, under or in respect of the Subordinated Debt Instruments and could be material exercised in a way which adversely affects the ability of Macquarie Bank or MGL to comply with its obligations in respect of the Subordinated Debt Instruments (including in connection with the Exchange of the

the Issuer, it will be required to meet its obligations to all its other creditors (including unsecured unsecured creditors, but excluding any obligations in respect of subordinated debt which rank pari passu with the event an ADI becomes unable to meet its obligations or suspends payment, the ADI’s assets in Australia These specified liabilities include certain obligations of the ADI to APRA in respect of amounts payable the issuance of unsecured, subordinated debt obligations (subject to applicable legal and regulatory restrictions)

ADB: Asian Development Bank · 7 June 2024 English

Emissions data help investors assess companies’ capacity to cope with climate change risks and opportunities.

laws, and programs as well as external obligations and aspirations), such as national GHG

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