Opium (or poppy tears, scientific name: Lachryma papaveris) is dried latex obtained from the seed capsules of the opium poppy Papaver somniferum. Approximately 12 percent of opium is made up of the analgesic alkaloid morphine, which is processed chemically to produce heroin and other synthetic opioids for medicinal use and for the illegal drug trade. The latex also contains the closely related opiates codeine and thebaine, and non-analgesic alkaloids such as papaverine and noscapine. The traditional, labor-intensive method of obtaining the latex is to scratch ("score") the immature seed pods (fruits) by hand; the latex leaks out and dries to …



CEIP: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace · 13 June 2024 English

Although there are potential security and economic benefits for Moscow to be gained from closer ties to Afghanistan, they will be difficult to achieve.

is not an appealing place to make a home. While opium production ballooned as the Taliban was establishing

DIIS: Dansk Institut for Internationale Studier · 7 June 2024 English

New working paper series From Afghanistan and Yemen and from Mali to Somalia, checkpoints are central to dynamics of armed conflict, funding insurgents, driving violence and shaping governance by various …

Mansfield, D. (2013). Drugs and (dis) order. The opium economy, political settlements and statebuilding

DPG: Delhi Policy Group · 6 June 2024 English

DPG is deeply committed to the growth of India’s national power and purpose, the security and prosperity of the people of India and India’s contributions to the global public good. …

the Taliban’s eradication of poppy fields.13 The opium ban, imposed in April 2022, has devastated the livelihoods per- hectare income from wheat was $770, while opium yielded some US$10,000.14 The UN reported that in in 2023 alone, the first full year of the opium ban's enforcement, farmers' total income from selling https://www.dawn.com/news/1831782. 14 Afghanistan Opium Survey 2023. https://www.unodc.org/documents/crop-

RAND Corporation · 29 May 2024 English

This Perspective presents and discusses the current situation in Europe concerning synthetic opioids, and draws on earlier and ongoing crises involving this group of substances to reflect on likely challenges …

as, for instance, heroin, which is derived from opium poppies that are cultivated only in specific regions; which are compounds found in or derived from the opium poppy; semi-synthetic opioids, which are opioids opioids that are made from compounds in the opium poppy; and synthetic opioids. Synthetic opioids6 produce entirely from human-made chemicals rather than from opium poppies (Rang et al., 2012). The main groups of Natural Semi- synthetic Synthetic Morphine Codeine Opium Diamorphine (heroin) Oxycodone (e.g. OxyContin)

NIPoRe: Nepal Institute for Policy Research · 21 May 2024 English

Media freedom advocates like the Committee to Protect Journalists expressed alarm over the proposal and urged the government to reconsider the move. [...] The increased growth is based on the …

supply, and the appreciation of the Afghani. The opium ban has resulted in a loss equivalent to 8 percent

Heritage Foundation · 17 May 2024 English

Psychonauts might keep up to speed on the potential highs from NPSs, but the market cannot prevent the spread of those drugs to people who do not surf the Web …

agricultural products. A classic example is the opium poppy, from which chemists can synthesize (for example) China sees our suffering as poetic justice for the Opium Wars that the West forced it to endure late in the The Communist Party in China all but eradicated opium addiction after 1949, and the Taliban has suppressed

IEP: Institute for Economics & Peace · 13 May 2024 Spanish

En 2023, el 74.6% de las personas 11 estados han registrado mejoras, con un promedio del consideraban inseguro el estado en el que vivían. 25.1% en cada uno de ellos. …

ew-cross-disciplinary. 32 Corbley, A. (2022). “Opium production ceases as communities in Mexico’s Golden

IEP: Institute for Economics & Peace · 13 May 2024 English

The deterioration was driven by a 157 and Zacatecas. percent increase in the rate of retail drug crime. • Yucatán was the most peaceful state in the country • The …

IN SCORE 22/23: -0.191 producing marijuana and opium poppies for heroin.31 The increase in peacefulness izacion-presidencial/. 32 Corbley, A. (2022). “Opium production ceases as communities in Mexico’s Golden

UNODC: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime · 8 May 2024 English

ANNUAL REPORT 2023 Advancing justice, health and security in a time of global need 1 Advancing justice, health and security in a time of global need The designations employed and …

CND Thematic Southeast Asia Discussions on the 12 Opium Survey 2023 Implementation of and Global Study 4-6 UNCAC December Violent Extremism Southeast Asia Opium Survey 2023Cultivation, Production, and Implications Representative 28 of the Secretary-General on Afghanistan opium Violence against Children survey 2023 launch Strategy Launch of the Regional Director Ghada Afghanistan opium Platform to fast-track 30 -12 Dec Waly participates in 2023 included: providing 80,115 people with opium-alternative sustainable liveli- hoods opportunities

FSIN: Food Security Information Network · 8 May 2024 English

Applications for such permission should be addressed to the Food Security Information Network Secretariat, email: fsin-secretariat@wfp.org The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not …

the previous year, the number of people Bans on opium cultivation dented facing high levels of acute food

View more