Coherent Identifier About this item: 20.500.12592/bktj06

European Jobs Monitor 2021: Gender gaps and the employment structure

14 December 2021


One of the most striking developments of the last half-century has been the huge rise in the labour market participation of women. Two out of every three net new jobs created over the last two decades in the EU were taken by women. At the same time, sharply rising employment rates among older workers due to population ageing and policy changes have increased the share of older workers in the labour market. This report examines the impacts of the changing contours of labour supply on the employment structure over the last quarter-century in Europe (1995–2019). The primary focus is on gender, with a secondary focus on ageing. Among the main findings are that employment shares in gender-balanced jobs have declined despite the rising female share of employment and that gender pay gaps are highest in well-paid jobs.




gender equality employment structure pay and income ageing workforce employment and labour markets european pillar of social rights

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Eurofound and European Commission Joint Research Centre (2021), European Jobs Monitor 2021: Gender gaps and the employment structure , European Jobs Monitor series, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.
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