Cossa & Palik - Women and DDR in Mozambique, GPS Policy Brief 1-
17 January 2023
GPS POLICY BRIEF 01 2023 Women and DDR in Mozambique The Exclusionary and Inclusionary Dynamics of DDR Programs Protecting women from conflict- Brief Points related sexual violence and facilitat- ing their meaningful participation in • Between 2012 and 2019, the Govern- peace processes are the cornerstones ment of Mozambique (Frelimo) and of the UN’s Women, Peace, and Secu- Renamo engaged in more. [...] Although the 1992 DDR largely tion opportunities for ex-combatants, excluded women from the design their families, and the community, and implementation of the program, benefits a wider group of women. [...] of the Agreement on the Definitive Cessation receive insufficient attention as beneficiaries, UNOMOZ was mandated to monitor and sup- of Military Hostilities, the DDR process, po- and they rarely become active participants in port the ceasefire, cantonment, disarmament, litical reforms related to decentralization, and the negotiations preceding DDR programs. [...] The Maputo lack of attention to and integration of women in ants on both sides, as well as the creation of Agreement provides for the complete disarma- DDR processes is problematic because research the new army, the resettlement of millions of ment of Renamo’s armed wing, a process man- shows that women contribute to the activities of refugees and displaced people, and the hold- aged by the Milita. [...] Some women assumed strategic In the Maputo peace negotiations only one wom- of the DDR program despite having been in- positions as informants and messengers for the an, Arsénia Massingue, currently Mozambique’s volved in both the state and the non-state armed armed groups.