The Lagged Development of the Korean Manhwa Industry from 1910 to the Present: The Formation of Negative Perceptions
26 July 2023
The Lagged Development of the korean Manhwa Industry From 1910 to the Present • 173 recovery from 1945 to 1950s; third, the 1960s and 1970s, which were charac- terized by military rule and rapid economic development; fourth, economic stabilization during the 1980s; 昀椀fth, the 1990s, characterized by liberalization and informatization; and 昀椀nally, the period from the 2000s until the present. [...] The NegLecTeD FacTor: The FormaTIoN oF NegaTIve PercePTIoNs TowarD Manhwa Only recently have scholars from various disciplines begun to pay attention to the manhwa industry due to its signi昀椀cant transition and growth.8 Given that manhwa operated under the strict censorship policies of the military govern- ment from the 1960s to the 1980s, much of the literature has focused on how much the industr. [...] The Lagged Development of the korean Manhwa Industry From 1910 to the Present • 175 Gradually, this practice changed in the United States, which today has one of the largest markets in the world for comics. [...] During the 1960s and the 1970s: The dark age of manhwa and the emergence of animated 昀椀lms Despite the increasingly negative public perception of manhwa among the older generation and the government, this industry grew considerably as the baby boomers became its main consumers and there was still little in the way of alternative entertainment. [...] The Lagged Development of the korean Manhwa Industry From 1910 to the Present • 187 From the 2000s until the present: The Resurgence of manhwa in a new market environment As described before, manhwa has long been perceived among consumers in Korea as content suited mainly for young generations such as children and teenagers, which has hindered the expansion of the market in Korea.