A cartel is a group of independent market participants who collude with each other in order to improve their profits and dominate the market. Cartels are usually associations in the same sphere of business, and thus an alliance of rivals. Most jurisdictions consider it anti-competitive behavior. Cartel behavior includes price fixing, bid rigging, and reductions in output. The doctrine in economics that analyzes cartels is cartel theory. Cartels are distinguished from other forms of collusion or anti-competitive organization such as corporate mergers.

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Cato Institute · 23 November 2021

2021, 85 percent involved illicit fentanyl, made in labs and smuggled into the U.S. by Mexican drug cartels. Meanwhile, opioid prescription volume has dropped roughly 60 percent since 2012. Powerful anecdotes

Lowy Institute for International Policy · 20 October 2021 English

Key Findings The Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) is a twenty-first century trade accord that aims to secure a level playing field and rules-based trade environment in …

well-developed competition policy29 covering antitrust, cartels, mergers, and state aid, CPTPP rules that advance

ORF · 19 October 2021 English

The most enduring idea from George Orwell’s 1984 is that even as we design and produce language, we are shaped in turn by the language we use—words are crucial in …

for cyber criminals. These actors (and their cartels) operate with near impunity because a host country

AREU · 13 October 2021 English

The failure to address this corruption and the Taliban’s other sources of financial support, including that of foreign donors, left the US and its allies blind to the risks to …

trade.18 13 Thomas Ruttig, “UNODC Sees Afghan Drug Cartels Emerging – with One Eye Closed”, (Afghan Analysts velopment-environment/unodc-sees-afghan-drug- cartels-emerging-with-one-eye-closed/ 14 U.S. Department evelopment-environment/unodc-sees-afghan-drug-cartels-emerging-with-one-eye-closed/ https://www.afghanistan-analysts evelopment-environment/unodc-sees-afghan-drug-cartels-emerging-with-one-eye-closed/ https://www.defense participation.” 59 50 Richard Oppel, “UN sees Afghan Drug Cartels Emerging” , New York Times, 2 September2009,. https://www

EURASYLUM · 7 October 2021 English

The return of the democrats to the United States As the United States Government announced that White House generated excitement among migrant some of the measures in place during the …

children and adolescents, as it is known that drug cartels and Humanitarian aid to unaccompanied children of our nation’s smugglers recruited by Mexican cartels. southwest border. 30 June. Available Estudios

World Bank Group · 6 October 2021 English

Strengthening private sector innovation and productivity is a cornerstone of Indonesia's medium-term economic development strategy. The Government of Indonesia (GoI), in its Medium-term Development Plan 2020-2024 (RPJMN), has articulated a …

in domestic markets. As a result, the number of cartels detected by the KPPU has been very limited compared

World Bank Group · 1 October 2021 English

The objective of this study is to investigate the drivers and constraints of growth and productivity in Guatemala and explore areas with high growth potential. Drawing on the historical growth …

in the world, where extortion, drug trafficking cartels, and non-state armed groups adversely impact business worrisome are the links between drug traffick- ing cartels and mining and hydroelectric projects for territorial

EPRS · 28 September 2021 English

The EU is an important market for illicit drugs, both in terms of consumption and production. An estimated 28.9 % of European adults aged 15-65 have used illicit drugs at …

included investigating the link between drug cartels and European organised crime. The Lisbon Treaty

Cato Institute · 27 September 2021

the border with China supplying the chemicals to make fentanyl and its analogs. Drug dealers and cartels use pill presses to convert the products into counterfeit prescription opioids pills, as well as

World Bank Group · 27 September 2021 English

The pace at which markets are evolving, thanks to the accelerated adoption of digital technologies, poses important challenges to competition law and its enforcement. This work aims to support this …

between competitors on • Hub and spoke cartels. When firms outsource pricing algorithms to the

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