Foreign Trade

International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories because there is a need or want of goods or services.In most countries, such trade represents a significant share of gross domestic product (GDP). While international trade has existed throughout history (for example Uttarapatha, Silk Road, Amber Road, scramble for Africa, Atlantic slave trade, salt roads), its economic, social, and political importance has been on the rise in recent centuries. Carrying out trade at an international level is a complex process when compared to domestic trade. When trade takes place between two or more nations …



IMF: International Monetary Fund · 1 December 2023 English

Some workers will win, others will lose as the use of artificial intelligence grows Technological developments—such as factory robots, smart home devices, and self-driving cars—transform the way we live and …

for skill-based technological change or for foreign trade and outsourcing-related replacement of workers

IRENA: International Renewable Energy Agency · 1 December 2023 English

Renewable energy

Uzbekistan IRENA collaborated with the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Relations of Bosnia and Herzegovina

World Bank Group · 30 November 2023 English

The Dominican Republic has made significant progress in boosting economic growth and reducing poverty, but it still faces challenges to achieve inclusive and equitable development, increase productivity, and improve the …

road. Ports and airports focus on handling foreign trade cargo. There are railway links constructed during

ADB: Asian Development Bank · 30 November 2023 English

G20’s commitments have focused on advancing women’s entrepreneurship but have not fully considered their challenges to participate in cross-border trade.

a gender dimension in trade facilitation, foreign trade policies, measures to support exporters, and significant steps to mainstream gender into their foreign trade policies and strategies. We present some examples: initiatives toward gender mainstreaming their foreign trade and investment policy. One of the initiatives 7 which “sets up dialogue on feminist foreign trade and investment policy at selected missions

IMF: International Monetary Fund · 30 November 2023 English

Geoeconomic fragmentation (GEF) is becoming entrenched worldwide, and the European Union (EU) is not immune to its effects. This paper takes stock of GEF policies impinging on—and adopted by—the EU …

multinational production, the EU’s ultimate foreign trade linkages with countries that may not share

World Bank Group · 30 November 2023 English

World Bank Group · 30 November 2023 English

Agreement between the Netherlands Minister for Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation and the International Agreement between the Netherlands Minister for Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation (the “Donor”) and ____________________________ NETHERLANDS MINISTER FOR FOREIGN TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION By:

IFRI: Institut Français des Relations Internationales · 29 November 2023 French

This paper aims to highlight how and why William Ruto won the 2022 presidential elections against Raila Odinga by focusing on his political strategy before, during and after the campaign. …

has not taken a radical anti-China position.77 Nevertheless, it appears that the regime is looking to diversify Kenya’s foreign trading partners to reduce dependency on China.

IISD: International Institute for Sustainable Development · 29 November 2023 English

This Sustainable Asset Valuation (SAVi) assessment is a comprehensive analysis of the costs and benefits of a proposed highway project in Uzbekistan, under the Sustainable Infrastructure Programme in Asia (SIPA) …

economic growth through increasing domestic and foreign trade. The main objectives of the highway project

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