Paper is a thin sheet material produced by mechanically and/or chemically processing cellulose fibres derived from wood, rags, grasses or other vegetable sources in water, draining the water through fine mesh leaving the fibre evenly distributed on the surface, followed by pressing and drying. Although paper was originally made in single sheets by hand, almost all is now made on large machines—some making reels 10 metres wide, running at 2,000 metres per minute and up to 600,000 tonnes a year. It is a versatile material with many uses, including printing, packaging, decorating, writing, cleaning, filter paper, wallpaper, book endpaper, conservation …



GCB: Global Carbon Budget · 6 December 2023

Global carbon emissions from fossil fuels have risen again in 2023 – reaching record levels. The annual Global Carbon Budget projects fossil carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of 36.8 billion tonnes …

the industrial era (defined here as 1750). This paper describes the components of the global carbon cycle CO2 budget that are reported an- nually in this paper include separate and independent esti- mates for limitations of current information are discussed in the paper and have been examined in detail elsewhere (Ballantyne defined by the IPCC (Stocker et al., 2013). This paper provides a detailed description of the data sets into more detail for the period since 1959. This paper is updated every year using the format of “living

UNFCCC: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change · 5 December 2023 English

This second draft text was published by the U.N. climate body (UNFCCC) and shows the possible outcomes for talks at the COP28 summit in Dubai. The negotiations are part of …

every session within the Mitigation ambition and implementation work programme, for instance in the form of technical papers

Resolution Foundation · 4 December 2023 English

The final report of The Economy 2030 Inquiry The UK has great strengths, but is a decade and a half into a period of stagnation. The toxic combination of slow …

Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, Energy white paper: Powering our net zero future, December 2020. 8 evolution of the American economy, NBER Working Paper, October 2020. In competitive markets, a rational Productivity-Welfare Linkage: A Decomposition, ESCoE Discussion Paper 2022-07, March 2022. 24 ONS, Labour market statistics

Blavatnik School of Government · 4 December 2023 English

7 was made clear long ago that this whole set of arguments is highly misleading – about the nature of the British state, about the politics of technology, and even …

ns-Fail BLAVATNIK SCHOOL OF GOVERNMENT WORKING PAPER PROVIDING ACCESS TO THE LATEST POLICY -RELEVANT 35489/BSG-WP_2023/056 Copyright for the working paper remains with the author Blavatnik School of Government Government, University of Oxford 1 Acknowledgements This paper was written as part of the Heywood Fellowship 2023 Britain’, Blavatnik School of Government Working Paper, University of Oxford, 2023. DOI: 10.35489/BSG-WP_2023/056 ability to sponsor ground- breaking technology. This paper, however, suggests that the United States was the

CGD: Center for Global Development · 4 December 2023 English

On climate cooperation, the agreement reaffirms the 2021 Pacific Island Forum statement in emphasising Tuvaluans’ right and desire to continue to live in their own territory, and Tuvalu’s enduring statehood …

Howes and Carol Farbotko for their comments on the paper. Any errors are the authors’ own. SAM HUCKSTEP is

PIIE: Peterson Institute for International Economics · 3 December 2023 English

recognized scholars is the foundation of our mission and work. learn more ○ Blogs ○ Publications ■ Policy Briefs ■ Working Papers ■ PIIE Briefings ■ Books ○ Commentary ■ Op-Eds ■ Testimony ■ Speeches and Papers ○ Podcasts ○ Multimedia ○ PIIE

SSEE: Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment · 3 December 2023 English

Almost all decarbonisation scenarios consistent with the 1.5°C target in the Paris Agreement contain some level of carbon capture and storage (CCS), either for abating emissions at source, removing carbon …

School of Enterprise and the Environment | Working Paper No. 23-08 ISSN 2732-4214 (Online) ISSN 2732-4214 Oxford Smith School Working Paper 23- 08. The views expressed in this paper represent those of the authors Smith School or other institution or funder. The paper is intended to promote discussion and to provide missing; and two studies of CCS in the pulp and paper sector yield capture rates of 62% and 75%.39 Robertson (2022),9 but with two major modifications. In that paper, energy system scenarios are constructed exogenously

ILO: International Labour Organisation · 3 December 2023

The conflict is resulting in a deep humanitarian crisis in Gaza, with huge implications on the labour market, employment prospects and livelihoods, not only within Gaza, but also in the …

NCAER: National Council of Applied Economic Research · 2 December 2023 English

The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Governing Body or Management of NCAER. [...] Inflation rate in …

future prospects”, Aquapost, November 1 Working Paper Goyal, R., & Sahay, R. (2023). "Taking Forward IMF’s Mainstreaming Strategy at the Country Level”, Working Paper No. WP 149. Research Report Bhandari, B., Majumder " -Gurucharan Manna, (Senior Adviser at NCAER) [Paper: Manna G.C., & Mukhopadhyay, D. (2023). "Change

Individual Contributors to Policy Commons · 2 December 2023 English

In a new paper Ernesto Tiburcio (on the job market) and Kara Ross Camarena study the effect of illegal immigration from Mexico on economic, political and cultural change in the United States. Studying

<p>In a new paper Ernesto Tiburcio (on the job market) and Kara Ross Camarena study the effect of illegal

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