Calculus

Calculus, originally called infinitesimal calculus or "the calculus of infinitesimals", is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations. It has two major branches, differential calculus and integral calculus; the former concerns instantaneous rates of change, and the slopes of curves, while integral calculus concerns accumulation of quantities, and areas under or between curves. These two branches are related to each other by the fundamental theorem of calculus, and they make use of the fundamental notions of convergence of infinite sequences …

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Publications

RSIS: S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies · 10 June 2024 English

practitioners and policymakers in developing Preventing and Countering Violent Extremism To put the emerging threats of the far-right (PCVE) interventions to address the misuse extremism and technologies in perspective, the …

attack may have played a role in the strategic calculus of jihadist groups with regard to the adoption


RAND Corporation · 4 June 2024 English

This Perspective defines, evaluates, and derives key requirements for defense programs from the concept of integrated deterrence, which was introduced in the 2022 National Defense Strategy . It discusses classic …

significant enough to change an opponent’s risk calculus. For many rival efforts below the threshold of involves creat- ing a persistent cost-benefit calculus in the minds of one or more actors that helps differences in the perceptions and result- ing decision calculus of specific adversaries in specific circumstances


MP-IDSA: Manohar Parrikar Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses · 3 June 2024 English

Analysts say the goal of the new offensive is twofold: to stretch Ukraine’s already outnumbered and outgunned forces to allow Russia to break through Ukrainian defences more easily elsewhere, and …

war in Ukraine. Perhaps, Russia’s geo-strategic calculus in keeping China on its side is also shaped by


IMF: International Monetary Fund · 3 June 2024 English

Sovereign borrowing-meant to spur investment and smooth ups and downs in revenue-may do just the opposite Since the 1970s, emerging market and developing economies have aggressively tapped into global sovereign …

use data and theory to show that the welfare calculus behind the conven- tional wisdom may indeed be


Individual Contributors to Policy Commons · 1 June 2024 English

kind of analysis I’m not sure all the campaigns even have… But first a quick note on the Electoral Calculus MRP released last night that some of you may have seen. This shows a Labour majority of 302 and

have… But first a quick note on the Electoral Calculus MRP released last night that some of you may have


ORF: Observer Research Foundation · 31 May 2024 English

Introduction Harsh V Pant A day might be a long time in politics, but in foreign policy, even a decade is usually not long enough to merit a serious appraisal. …

West, Russia’s role in India’s foreign policy calculus is declining.3 Further, the Indo-Pacific geography cannot reduce the importance of Moscow in India’s calculus. India will continue to carefully monitor the


USSC: United States Studies Centre · 30 May 2024 English

Standing up to China has been central to the framing of Republi- It seems unlikely that can foreign policy in the 118th Congress, obvious in the advent of the Select …

“unacceptably weaken” the US submarine sonal mark. Trump’s calculus may emerge, in part, fleet.156 Accordingly, the


Center for Political Accountability · 30 May 2024 English

These chief state legal officers have the power to direct state agencies; interpret and enforce state law; act as public advocates for the citizens of the state; engage in lawsuits …

attorney genearl actions has altered the risk calculus for companies that donate to groups like RAGA


MP-IDSA: Manohar Parrikar Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses · 30 May 2024 English

These victories led to the breakup of the Kyivan states, which remained under the dominion of the Golden Horde for a few centuries.10 It was during this period that the …

occupied a central position in Russia’s strategic calculus. It must be understood that since the times of nuclear meltdown in Zaporizhzhia reflects Russia calculus of leveraging fear psychosis to garner support


NBER: National Bureau of Economic Research · 30 May 2024 English

High-dosage tutoring is an effective way to improve student learning (Nickow et al., 2024; Guryan et al., 2023). Finding ways to deliver high-dosage tutoring at large scale remains a challenge. …

learning (CAL) platforms might change this scale-up calculus. We focus on the strategic incorporation of technology


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