Nuclear Weapons

A nuclear weapon (also called an atom bomb, nuke, atomic bomb, nuclear warhead, A-bomb, or nuclear bomb) is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb). Both bomb types release large quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. The first test of a fission ("atomic") bomb released an amount of energy approximately equal to 20,000 tons of TNT (84 TJ). The first thermonuclear ("hydrogen") bomb test released energy approximately equal to 10 million tons of TNT (42 PJ). Nuclear bombs …

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Publications

ICAN: International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons · 17 June 2024 English

arsenals than the year before, a total of $91.4 billion. In 2023, twenty companies working on nuclear weapons development and maintenance earned at least $31 billion for this work. In 2023, at least $7 $7.9 billion in new nuclear weapon contracts were awarded. Each company that builds nuclear weapons exerts influence throughout the government, think tanks and financial institutions. These companies spent Companies donated more than $6 million to the top think tanks researching and writing about nuclear weapons and current and former employees of these companies sit on think tank boards of directors and

2023 GLOBAL NUCLEAR WEAPONS SPENDING International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons | REPORT June 2023 Global nuclear weapons spending International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons icanw.org REPORT to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN). All rights reserved. 4 SURGE: 2023 GLOBAL NUCLEAR WEAPONS SPENDING second on nuclear weapons. Every country increased the amount it spent on nuclear weapons. The United billion. In 2023, twenty companies working on nuclear weapons development and maintenance earned at least


SDSN: Sustainable Development Solutions Network · 17 June 2024 English

Since 2016, the global edition of the Sustainable Development Report (SDR) has provided the most up-to-date data to track and rank the performance of all UN member states on the …

war. In this regard, the ten nations with nuclear weapons have an urgent responsibility to abide by comply with the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons. 2.4 Systematic monitoring of UN-based multilateralism autonomous weapons, deep fakes, and cyberwarfare; nuclear weapons, notably the emergence of yet more powerful


ORF: Observer Research Foundation · 14 June 2024 English

Introduction Quad countries are home to a combined 1.9 billion people—or 24% of the world’s population— and represent 35% of the world’s GDP and 18% of global trade [1] The …

North Korea.71 YEAR WHEN STATES DECLARED NUCLEAR WEAPONS* 1945 1964 1949 1974 1952 1998 1960 2006 UNITED possessing nuclear weapons Source: https://www.britannica.com/topic/list-of-states-with-nuclear-weapons-2227841


CEIP: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace · 11 June 2024 English

Two years into Russia’s full-scale war against Ukraine, a Carnegie-sponsored opinion poll found that Ukrainians still believe strongly in their national cause, even as doubts creep in about the path …

is also seen in their views on reacquiring nuclear weapons: 47 percent believed that Ukraine should reacquire


IFRI: Institut Français des Relations Internationales · 11 June 2024 English

brought back into the spotlight the long-standing debate about Eurodeterrence and the role of nuclear weapons in defending Europe. Back in February 2020, French President Macron suggested that his country had to brainstorm the potential of a French contribution to the defense of Europe through its nuclear weapons. Indeed, he acknowledged – more clearly than his predecessors – that French vital interests had glance, SSBNs are not the obvious choice to demonstrate the contribution of French and British nuclear weapons to European defense. Inherently discreet and invisible thanks to nuclear propulsion, essential

debate about Eurodeterrence and the role of nuclear weapons in defending Europe. Back in February 2020 contribution to the defense of Europe through its nuclear weapons. Indeed, he acknowledged – more clearly than demonstrate the contribution of French and British nuclear weapons to European defense. Inherently discreet and French strategic air force focuses on air-borne nuclear weapons. Le porte-avions français «Charles de Gaulle» Apart from strategic signaling, air-borne nuclear weapons are also considered to add some degree of flexibility


CEIP: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace · 6 June 2024 English

The Carnegie Endowment generates strategic ideas and independent analysis to help countries and institutions take on the most difficult global problems and advance peace.

far as to explicitly threaten it might use nuclear weapons in this exact circumstance. (While the Biden


ORF: Observer Research Foundation · 6 June 2024 English

In the wake of the helicopter crash that tragically claimed the lives of President Ebrahim Raisi and Foreign Minister Hossein Amir-Abdollahian, Iran finds itself at a critical juncture, grappling with …

further enriched, could be sufficient for two nuclear weapons. Now that the ‘breakout’ time is close to zero


Lowy Institute for International Policy · 5 June 2024 English

attention. They were divided about Australia’s military involvement in Iraq. They saw the spread of nuclear weapons and global warming as the foremost threats to the nation. Yet for all its problems, the rest

involvement in Iraq. They saw the spread of nuclear weapons and global warming as the foremost threats


Prospect Foundation · 5 June 2024 English

On May 16, Putin met Xi in Beijing, signing the “Joint Statement of the People’s Republic of China and the Russian Federation on Deepening the Comprehensive Strategic Partnership of Coordination …

linking the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons with unrelated political objectives. In artificial


RAND Corporation · 4 June 2024 English

This Perspective defines, evaluates, and derives key requirements for defense programs from the concept of integrated deterrence, which was introduced in the 2022 National Defense Strategy . It discusses classic …

response to “the technologi- cal problem of nuclear weapons,”3 in practice, deterrence is not a linear


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